Muscling up: Are steroids an emerging criminal threat?

January 2014

High-profile claims of links between elite sports and organised crime in Australia – such as those outlined in last year’s Australian Crime Commission (ACC) report – have put performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) squarely in the consciousness of mainstream society. But what are they, and how widespread is their use?

To continue reading the article please visit

Written by Bond University Assistent Professor Terry Goldsworthy